Cigarette smuggling cuts states’ per-pack tax revenues

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Highest

New York state, $4.35 (additional $1.50 in New York City)

Rhode Island, $3.50

Connecticut, $3.40

Hawaii, $3.20

Washington, $3.02

Lowest

Missouri, $.17

Virginia, $.30

Louisiana, $.36

Georgia, $.37

Alabama, $.42

Source: The Federation of Tax Administrators

Highest

New York state, $4.35 (additional $1.50 in New York City)

Rhode Island, $3.50

Connecticut, $3.40

Hawaii, $3.20

Washington, $3.02

Lowest

Missouri, $.17

Virginia, $.30

Louisiana, $.36

Georgia, $.37

Alabama, $.42

Source: The Federation of Tax Administrators

WASHINGTON — Over the past decade, almost every state has raised cigarette taxes, sometimes multiple times. The health benefits are undeniable, but the benefits to states’ revenues are not as clear-cut.

In 2010, states with high tobacco taxes lost about $5 billion in revenue because of cigarette smuggling, according to the Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives. Experts say the number is climbing.

Most of the black market in cigarettes is between low-tax states and high-tax states: Smugglers purchase cigarettes in a low-tax state and transport them to a high-tax state. Then they sell them at a discount to smokers while still pocketing a healthy profit. Because there is such a wide disparity among states’ cigarette taxes, the price differential is well worth the risk of smuggling, according to law enforcement officials.

Minnesota is the latest state to hike cigarette taxes. The legislature this year more than doubled the tax — from $1.23 a pack to $2.83. Massachusetts is also in the throes of debating a cigarette tax hike that would increase state taxes by another dollar, to $3.51 a pack.

The Federation of Tax Administrators, which keeps track of taxes in the 50 states, says all but three states — California, Missouri, and North Dakota — have raised their cigarette taxes at least once since 2000. These taxes vary widely, from a low of $0.17 in Missouri to a high of $4.35 in New York.

On top of the state tax, New York City levies its own tax of $1.50 per pack — making the city an attractive destination for smugglers.

“In the past few years, as taxes have gone up, you do notice it (the increase in smuggling),” said Charles Mulham, special ATF agent and public information officer in the New York office.

Mulham said smugglers usually drive down the eastern seaboard to Virginia, which has the second lowest tax in the country at 30 cents a pack, and pay $15 to $20 a carton. They load up a U-Haul and return to New York City where cartons normally sell for $120 each.

The smugglers sell them there for $60 to $70 a carton — half price to the smokers and without the tax collected. If they take apart the cartons and sell the contraband by the pack, the profit is even greater in a city where a pack goes for about $12, he said.

Geoff Gloak, spokesman for the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance, said that New York State cigarette tax collections have been steadily increasing the last several years, to $1.5 billion in 2012. He did not have an estimate on the revenue lost to the state through smuggling, but noted that enforcement efforts have picked up.

Others, however, estimate New York’s loss to be significant. According to a study by the Michigan-based Mackinac Institute for Public Policy, which studies cigarette smuggling, an estimated 60 percent of the cigarettes consumed in New York were smuggled illegally into the state, avoiding taxes. Michael LaFaive of the center estimated that the state could have lost as much as $1.8 billion in 2011 as a result.

Part of the reason smuggling is so lucrative is that the “price of doing business” for the smugglers is low. Current penalties in New York are about $150 a carton if smugglers are caught. In June, the penalty is scheduled to go up to $600 a carton, under a bill signed into law by Gov. Andrew Cuomo.

In a 2008 study called “How Far to the Border,” Stanford University professor Michael Lovenheim estimated that 13 percent to 25 percent of cigarette consumers bought their cigarettes in a cheaper jurisdiction than where they live. These smokers seek out “border localities” with lower taxes, such as other states, other countries or Indian reservations.

Prosecution of such “casual” smugglers is more difficult than tracking the big guys. The number of casual smugglers increases with the amount of tax in the smuggler’s home jurisdiction and the proximity of a cheaper locale, he found.

Lovenheim estimated that 31 percent of smokers in New Jersey, which has a $2.70 a pack cigarette tax, engage in “casual smuggling,” while only .01 percent of smokers do so in California, where the tax is 87 cents. Maryland and the District of Columbia came in at 36 percent and a whopping 63 percent, respectively, mostly because of their proximity low-tax Virginia — which, in many cases, is just over a bridge. Cigarette smuggling is so profitable that it is even allegedly being used to fund terrorists. In mid-May, 16 Palestinian men, some whom authorities said had ties to terrorists, were arrested in what police said was a $55 million illegal cigarette smuggling scheme that spanned New York, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and New Jersey.