According to the chemical companies that manufacture genetically engineered ingredients in our food, these ingredients are "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts. That is what they told the Food and Drug Administration, which has not conducted the independent studies to find the truth.
But these same chemical companies have told the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that these foods, seeds and ingredients merit unique patents on each one in order to protect the intellectual property rights and their fiduciary duty to shareholders to drive financial return. In other words, they are "substantially different."
The Environmental Protection Agency also considers them to be substantially different enough that some of these products are now regulated by the EPA as a pesticide, which is contained in every cell of the food. (They also contain an antibiotic resistance gene).
So which is it? Are the chemical companies telling the truth to the FDA or to the patent office or to you in their advertising? They say check the facts. Here are a few facts you might like to check if you want to know the truth: http://www.southerncrossreview.org/19/gmcrops.htm.