LOS ANGELES — Consumers shell-shocked by the escalating size and frequency of payment card hacks like the one that recently struck Target aren't likely to get much relief any time soon.
If anything, security experts say, the situation will worsen for American shoppers before it improves, if it ever does.
The U.S. relies largely on payment cards with magnetic strips — described by one retail trade group as "antiquated" and especially prone to fraud — instead of more secure systems already in place in most other countries. The vulnerability makes the United States a prime target for hackers.
A belated switch to credit cards with encrypted chips is set to kick in next year, but security experts are skeptical of its ability to keep cybercriminals at bay. And despite the growing costs of payment card hacks, the retailers, card companies and banks responsible for safeguarding consumers' financial information continue to butt heads over how best to stem the losses.
Amid the finger-pointing, politicians are weighing whether the government needs to get involved in ensuring greater payment card security.
President Barack Obama took a step in that direction last week by unveiling guidelines aimed at prodding companies that oversee essential services such as banking to better protect themselves from cyberattacks. The release came a week after Congress held a series of hearings demanding that retail and financial industry leaders explain how they planned to secure customer information.
Security experts fret that failure to act could threaten consumer trust in the plastic cards that drive the national economy.
"This has the potential for people to question the viability of our payment system," said Venky Ganesan, a venture capitalist with Menlo Ventures, who focuses on cybersecurity investments. "If people lose faith in the payments system, you're going to have the economy gum up."
Though e-commerce is a fast-rising sector, sales in bricks-and-mortar stores still account for 94 percent of all U.S. retail purchases, according to Javelin Strategy & Research. Credit and debit cards are used in half of those transactions.
Last year, nearly 70 billion payments, worth about $4 trillion, were made with credit, debit and prepaid cards in the U.S., according to industry tracker Nilson Report.
The Target breach was a stark reminder of just how vulnerable those plastic cards are.
Cybercriminals accessed credit and ATM card numbers of about 40 million customers and also stole personal information from up to 70 million shoppers by hacking the card readers. Soon after, major breaches were also discovered at Neiman Marcus and Michael's.
The information was then sold on the black market and used for fraudulent charges, the amount of which investigators are still trying to determine. Credit card consumers are not liable for the fraudulent charges made with the stolen information, but some are having to spend hours repairing dinged credit scores or clearing up a transaction.
The costs to banks and retailers are mounting in the aftermath.
The Target hack alone has cost credit unions up to $30 million to reissue cards and staff up call centers to handle consumer inquiries, according to the Credit Union National Association. Member banks of the Consumer Bankers Association have reissued more than 17.2 million payment cards, at a cost of $172 million. A report from Jefferies & Co. calculated that Target could face penalties of $400 million to $1.1 billion from the payment card industry because of the breach.
Still, the thefts came as no shock to security industry insiders. A study from Verizon Enterprise Solutions released last week found that just 11 percent of merchants are fully compliant with credit card security standards.
“That’s a surprise, because the standard is not about rocket science,” said Rodolphe Simonetti, managing director of payment card industry services for Verizon.
These thefts are just the tip of a very large iceberg. The Secret Service cybercrime investigations team has arrested more than 4,900 suspects associated with $1.37 billion in fraud losses in the last four years.
Banks managed to stop about $13 billion in attempted fraud last year, according to the American Bankers Association. But there were still more than 600 breaches during that period, a 30 percent year-over-year increase, according to the Identity Theft Resource Center.
Cleaning up the mess will be complex and costly. And a consensus on how to do it remains elusive.
The U.S. is an island when it comes to plastic cards with personal financial information stored on magnetic strips — a tool in use since the 1960s. Most other countries ditched the cards years ago in favor of a version known as EMV, a chip-based means of securing payment transactions developed by Europay, MasterCard and Visa.
Without this added layer of security, American credit cards have become easy pickings for thieves who swipe the data and sell it to counterfeit card makers.
“All the issues we are seeing are the result of the legacy systems we have in place,” said Alphonse Pascual, a senior analyst for Javelin. “This information can be stolen by anyone.”