At a glance
Mannequins have a rich century-old history. They’re what Marsha Bentley Hale, one of the world’s leading experts on mannequins, calls “significant sociological reflections of our consumer society.” Here’s a look at how mannequins have changed with the times:
Until the early 1900s, the most common mannequins had no head, arms or legs. But by 1912, with the rise of mass-production clothing, full-fledged human figures became popular.
During the Depression era, mannequins were inspired by Hollywood starlets, as many Americans took refuge in movie theaters, according to Eric Feigenbaum, chairman of the visual merchandising department of LIM College, a fashion college in New York City. But during World War II, the displays took on a somber tone to reflect more subdued fashions, he said.
After World War II, mannequins started looking playful again. But sexuality was squelched in the 1940s and ’50s. In fact, many American retailers removed the nipples of the older mannequins, because they were considered too sexual, Hale said.
With the sexual revolution in the 1960s, nipples were brought back to showcase braless fashions. The decade also saw the trend of mannequins being made in the image of celebrities.
The late 1970s and early ’80s ushered in an era of hyper-realism, with mannequins showing belly buttons and even back spine indentations, according to ChadMichael Morrisette, an expert in mannequin history.
By the late 1980s, the trend moved away from realistic mannequins again toward ones that were either headless or had faceless heads.
The industry in recent years has been moving more toward more realistic-looking mannequins, with wigs, makeup, chiseled facial features, full waistlines and even tattoos.
NEW YORK — The one-size-fits-all mannequin is getting a much-needed makeover.
Wings Beachwear's mannequins in Miami sport flower tattoos like some of the women who shop there. The mannequins at American Apparel's downtown New York City store have pubic hair peeking through their lingerie. And at David's Bridal, mannequins soon will get thicker waists, saggier breasts and back fat to mimic a more realistic shape.
"This will give (a shopper) a better idea of what the dress will look like on her," says Michele Von Plato, a vice president at the nation's largest bridal chain.
Stores are using more realistic versions of the usually tall, svelte, faceless mannequins in windows and aisles. It's part of retailers' efforts to make them look more like the women who wear their clothes. That means not only adding fat and hair, but also experimenting with makeup, wigs and even poses.
This comes after two decades of stores cutting back on mannequins to save money. Many have been using basic, white, headless, no-arms-or-legs torsos that can cost $300 compared with the more realistic-looking ones that can fetch up to $1,500. Now, as shoppers are increasingly buying online, stores see mannequins as a tool to entice shoppers to buy.
Indeed, studies show mannequins matter when shoppers make buying decisions. Forty-two percent of customers recently polled by market research firm NPD Group Inc. say something on a mannequin influences whether they buy it. In fact, mannequins ranked just behind friends and family in terms of influence.
"Mannequins are the quintessential silent sales people," says Eric Feigenbaum, chair of the visual merchandising department at LIM College, a fashion college in New York City.
Stores for over a century have played with the look of their "silent salespeople." Until the early 1900s, the most common ones were just torsos. But with the rise of mass-production clothing, full-length mannequins became popular.
The first ones were made of wax and melted in the heat and had details like human hair, nipples and porcelain teeth. By the 1960s, stores were investing in hair and makeup teams specifically devoted to taking care of the mannequins. That decade also started the trend of mannequins being made in the image of celebrities.
The late Adel Rootstein, founder of mannequin maker Rootstein, created a mannequin based on elfin model Twiggy in 1966. A year later, it made the first black mannequin based on Donyale Luna, the first black cover girl.
The next decade or so ushered in an era of hyper realism, with mannequins showing belly buttons and even back spine indentations, says
ChadMichael Morrisette, an expert in mannequin history. But by the late 1980s, the trend moved away from realistic mannequins and toward torsos or mannequins without faces. Now, retailers are doing another about-face.
Saks Fifth Avenue, for instance, spent about a decade using mostly mannequins who were headless or faceless. But in the past two years, the luxury retailer has been showcasing more mannequins with hair, makeup and chiseled features. "There's this whole generation of shoppers that hadn't seen realistic mannequins," says Harry E. Cunningham, a senior vice president at Saks. "We saw it as an opportunity."
Others also see opportunities. Ralph Pucci International, a big mannequin maker that creates figures for Macy's, Nordstrom and others, plans to offer versions with fuller hips and wider waists next year.
David's Bridal also is going for a more realistic look. In 2007, the company scanned thousands of women's bodies to figure out what the average woman looks like and applied those measurements to its first mannequins.
Whereas the original forms were closer to a size 6 with 36-26-36 bust-waist-hip measurements, David's Bridal's Von Plato says the new torso has less of a difference in measurements between the bust and the hip. The breasts are now flatter on top and rounder underneath. And the plus-size mannequins will now show the imperfections of getting heavier, with bulges in such places as the belly and back.
American Apparel, the teen apparel retailer known for its racy ads, this month has mannequins in its store in New York's trendy SoHo shopping district that are wearing see-through lingerie that reveal pubic hair and nipples.
Ryan Holiday, an American Apparel spokesman, says the number of customers in the store has increased 30 percent since the debut of the mannequins. "We created it to invite passers-by to explore the idea of what is sexy and consider their comfort with the natural female form," the company said in a statement.
The windows were attention grabbing, with most people on a recent Friday, stopping, pointing and laughing. "It's a brilliant idea," said Ali Mohammed, 55, a New York resident who works in construction in the area.
But Allison Berman, 19, thought the realism went too far. "I see this as sexual," says another New York resident.