LEWISTON, Idaho — Huckleberries are highly sought after, but the coveted mountain fruit was difficult to find across much of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho this year.
Pickers were able to locate some productive plants and patches, but they frequently encountered healthy bushes that had few berries or none at all, The Lewiston Tribune reported Friday.
“In general terms, this is not a very good year,” said Wayne Kasworm, a grizzly bear biologist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service who tracks huckleberry production in the Selkirk, Cabinet and Yaak mountain ranges.
With a changing climate, scientists like him increasingly are tracking huckleberries, which are an important food source for grizzly bears and other wildlife and coveted by people as well. Native Americans have harvested huckleberries for thousands of years and continue to do so today. The small berries with a pleasant mix of sweet and tart are targeted by recreational and commercial pickers as well. They are used to make pies, ice cream and other desserts, or are added to pancakes, milkshakes and smoothies.
Grizzlies depend on the berries as a key food source.
“I started looking at huckleberries in part because they are a very large component of bear diets,” said Tabitah Graves, a U.S. Geological Survey scientist. “Glacier National Park, where most of my work is focused, huckleberries are over 50 percent of their diet in the peak of summer, so that is a pretty large component and during the time period when they are gaining fat to be able to hibernate.”
In the course of studying the plants, she learned how important they are to Native Americans and other people, and how they play a small role in rural economies. Small restaurants and stores sell huckleberry products, and some people make extra money picking and selling them.
But it’s not just people and bears who seek the berries.
“The other thing I’ve learned in the process of doing this work is just how many other species rely on huckleberries. It’s really a keystone species,” Graves said. “We have found scats of coyotes and martens and weasels (with berries), and we have recorded pictures of all kinds of birds and small mammals eating huckleberries as well. I don’t know how important they are to all of those species, but I do know they are part of their diet.”
Graves is studying what huckleberry plants need at different stages of their development to produce berries and how the distribution of the plants might change in response to climate factors like larger, more frequent high-intensity wildfires.
She and a graduate student identified five species of bumble bees and other bees that help pollinate the plants. One of those, the western bumble bee, is in decline and a candidate for Endangered Species Act protection.
“The occupancy declined by 93 percent between 1998 and 2018 — that is across the entire Western United States. It wasn’t quite as bad up here in the Northwest, which is good, but it’s concerning,” Graves said.
Researchers like her want to know how new fire regimes may affect the plant. Huckleberries need ample sun and tend to like the types of openings that fires often create. When forest canopies close in because of plant succession, berries often are shaded out.
Some Native American tribes used fire to manage huckleberry habitat. But those burns tended to be of low intensity. Now, many fires — driven in part by climate change and a buildup of biomass traced to past fire suppression — burn much more intensely.
“Historically, fire was intentionally used to regenerate shrub fields and make them produce more huckleberries, but now we are under a different system and different climate,” Graves said. “We don’t really know yet what more severe fires — what kind of impacts that will have on (berry) distribution.”
Graves developed a method to track distribution of huckleberry plants by using aerial photography to key in on the plant’s seasonal color change. They turn red in late summer and fall. She and her team used the color to map huckleberry habitat and then did site visits to determine the accuracy of the method.
Janet Prevey, another USGS scientist, has studied how the plant may respond to climate change. It could be dramatic. The plants may become less prevalent at some lower-elevation and drier sites. That could mean huckleberries recede from some of the plant’s southern range and advance in northern latitudes.
Prevey found huckleberry habitat, under some carbon emission scenarios, may be reduced by 5 percent to 40 percent in the Northwest and that it could expand 5 percent to 60 percent in northern British Columbia, Canada. Similarly the timing of flowering and fruit could change. She found flowering may move up 23 to 50 days on the calendar and fruiting could advance 24 to 52 days.
“Where there are a lot of huckleberries now, maybe we’ll see less huckleberry growth in the future,” she said. “But this is all based on modeling and climate projections.”