However, since Gov. Jay Inslee issued a stay-at-home order due to the COVID-19 pandemic, law enforcement agencies have seen reports of domestic violence climb. Still, state lawmakers and local law enforcement, prosecutors and advocates have made strides in how domestic violence cases are handled through collaborative efforts.
Inslee earlier this month signed into law the Tiffany Hill Act, which will give domestic violence victims access to technology that will help them monitor the location of their abuser. It takes effect June 11. Senate Bill 5149, sponsored by Sen. Lynda Wilson, R-Vancouver, passed unanimously in Olympia earlier this year.
Wilson and Wollstein, who worked on Hill’s case, have both said they believe the law would have saved her life.
“In general, domestic violence is a constant issue and needs more attention, awareness and education,” Wollstein said.
About 40 percent of the police department’s call volume is domestic violence-related, Wollstein said. About three-fourths of serious assaults and two-thirds of misdemeanor assaults that the Clark County Sheriff’s Office handles are attributed to domestic violence crimes, Sgt. Brent Waddell said.
Domestic violence calls prompt a two-officer response, which is needed to separate the couple so they can be interviewed individually.
Officers identify the primary aggressor. Both people may have injuries. Both may have committed a crime to some extent, even in self-defense. Under state law, the person who takes an initial argument to a physical, criminal level holds the most responsibility.
That determination is based on statements and evidence from the scene, historical documentation of domestic violence involving the parties and whether a no-contact order was violated. Each event is “situationally dependent,” Wollstein said, but there are commonalities among most instances of domestic violence.
Relationships don’t turn violent immediately, Wollstein said. Instead, the abuse starts with manipulation — making the victim in the partnership lose trust in their own thoughts and feelings, she said. The popular term for this abuse is gaslighting. Over time, victims become more accepting of other forms of abuse, and it gets more difficult to separate them from the situation.
In homicide-suicides, an abuser threatening suicide is one of the most intimidating forms of manipulation, said Nichole Peppers, a program manager at YWCA Clark County.
To what extent Tiffany Hill had been gaslighted is unclear, but Rene Sundby, president of the Sarah J. Anderson PTA, told lawmakers in January that Keland Hill had been abusing her for a decade. In North Carolina, he was arrested on suspicion of attempted murder, for strangulation, but the case was dismissed.
Once Tiffany Hill decided to leave her husband, his violence ramped up. Keland Hill stalked her and made unwanted contacts, despite a court order barring him from doing so. Peppers said there are victims who do everything in their power to escape abuse but are still killed.
Gun-related domestic killings up nationally
Keland Hill tried to buy a gun while he was harassing his wife. A background check thwarted his attempt. He was still able to get his hands on a firearm, and authorities have yet to explain how he did it.
According to a study last year looking at gender and homicide, which used FBI data, gun-related domestic killings increased by 26 percent from 2010 to 2017. The findings were first reported by HuffPost. Clark County’s numbers for gun-related domestic homicides are too small to identify trends.
The presence of a gun in domestic violence situations can increase the risk of homicide for women by as much as 500 percent, according to the National Domestic Violence Hotline. Additionally, a study published last year by the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found that a higher rate of gun ownership is tied to a higher rate of domestic violence homicide, but the connection does not exist for other gun homicides.
Of the 56 domestic violence homicides statewide in 2018, 24 involved a firearm, according to annual crime reports. In 2017, 23 of 49 cases involved firearms, according to the reports.
Several domestic violence homicide cases in the county over the past several years involved guns.
Stephanie “Sam” Westby stands accused of first-degree domestic violence murder in the 2019 death of her husband, 51-year-old Joseph Westby. Investigators say there was no record of police calls to the couple’s Camas residence.
The Westbys’ children told investigators there were rifles in the home, because Joseph Westby hunted with his son. Sam Westby allegedly shot her husband with a pistol, so there was another weapon in the home, according to investigative reports.
In a murder-suicide case that didn’t get a lot of attention, Sanella Polutan, 39, was shot and killed by her husband, Ahmed Polutan, 43, at their Orchards-area home in January 2017.
Investigative reports say Ahmed Polutan liked to hunt and was a “possessor of firearms.” He wanted to be a professional fighter and would only take part-time jobs so he had time to pursue his passion, the records say.
Robert W. Clark was sentenced in November 2018 to 10 years in prison for the attempted murder of his wife at The Heathman Lodge in Vancouver. His wife escaped the hours-long attack when she was able to grab her handgun from her purse and fire it near Clark’s head. Investigative reports say that she said she was an “avid gun person” and always carried a firearm in her purse.
Research has shown that a victim having a gun is neither prohibitive nor protective, according to Wollstein.
“It statistically doesn’t help or hurt a victim. People need to know how to handle a gun, how to access that gun safely and efficiently, but also, you need to ask yourself when you’d be willing to use the gun and under what circumstances,” Wollstein said.
Survivors may find themselves in the offices of the Domestic Violence Prosecution Center. It serves as a central space where detectives, city and county prosecutors, and advocates collaborate.